European Union


European Union


EU Information Office in Hungary


European Parliament


Group of the European People’s Party


Fidesz Delegation in the European Parliament


Parliamentary Committees



European Commission


Commissioner Reding (Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship)


Commissioner Vassiliou (Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth)


European Exernal Action Service


The European Commission Representation in Hungary   


European Council


Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union


European Court of Justice


European Ombudsman


Committee of the Regions


European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA)



International and regional organisations

Council of Europe (CoE)
The main function of the Council of Europe is to enhance the power of democracy, the rule of law, and human rights in its 40 states. The Council of Europe has set down common principles for the protection of minorities.


European Charter for  Regional or Minority Languages


Parlamentary Assebly of the Council of Europe


The Congress of Local and Regional Authorities


Venice Commission

CoE - European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI)
ECRI's task is to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at the level of greater Europe and from the perspective of the protection of human rights. The country reports available here are useful. Highly recommended.

International Organisation for Migration (IOM)
IOM is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits migrants and society.

Nordic Council of Ministers
The Nordic Council is a forum for cooperation between Nordic parliamentarians and governments in the Nordic Region. It conducts an intensive range of activities in many policy areas including Europe, Education & Research, and Economy & Environment.

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
NATO is a transatlantic alliance with a focus on promoting European stability, collective crisis management and peacekeeping.

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
OSCE, a pan-European organisation, addresses a wide range of security issues including preventive diplomacy, confidence and security building measures, human rights, economic security, arms control and election monitoring. There are direct links here to the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) and to the High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM).

OSCE - High Commissioner on National Minorities
The full text of the Hague Recommendations on Educational Rights of National Minorities and the Oslo Recommendations regarding the linguistic rights of national minorities can be found here, in many languages.

United Nations (UN)
This is a useful index for finding information about the United Nations on the internet. Direct links to the official UN Web Site Locator, to Security Council documents, and to a list of UN Peacekeeping missions can be found here.


UN - Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
The full text of documents relating to the rights of minorities can be found here, as well as a direct link to the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination.

UN - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
This is a reference portal of selected information sources dealing with refugee, asylum, human rights and related topics.

UN - United Nations Documentation: Research Guide / Dag Hammarskjöld Library
This website lists basic tools of UN research, and offers links to the General Assembly, the Security Council, ad the Economic and Social Council.

UN - United Nations Statistics Division
Quick access to national and international statistics through official outlets of UN member states and through UN programs and agencies, as well as the World Trade Organisation and Eurostat can be obtained here.

UN – Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO)
UNPO consists of nearly 50 members and observer nations representing more than 100 million persons who are not represented in international organisations such as the United Nations.


Western European Union (WEU)
The WEU is the defence component of the European Union. The WEU family of nations is made up of 28 countries which have status as Member States, Associate Members, Observers, or Associate Partners.


International governmental Organisations / North-western University Library
Direct links to the Council of Europe, the European Union, the European Court of Human Rights, the European Commission, the Nordic Council, the United Nations, and the Western European Union can be found here.



Constitutional and Legislative Sources


Global resources:

GlobaLex - Hauser Global Law Program, NYU School of Law
The electronic legal publication GlobaLex is dedicated to international and foreign law research. Highly recommended.


European Court of Human Rights
Judgements and decisions of the European Court of Human Rights are available here.

Interights / International Centre for the Legal Protection of Human Rights
This centre provides leadership in the development of legal protection for human rights and freedoms through the effective use of international and comparative human rights law. The International Human Rights Law Database is highly useful.
International Constitutional Law / University of Bern
The text of many European constitutions can be found here. The background summary of constitutional developments and brief chronology of related political events are useful. Caution is advised, because not all of the documents in this database are kept up-to-date. Amendments or the enactment of a newer constitution need to be found elsewhere.

International Law-Related Websites on the World-Wide Web - European Journal of International Law
This is a useful compilation for the researcher in the field of international law. Highly recommended.

Juristisches Internetprojekt Saarbrücken / Law Web Saarbrücken
This up-to-date, useful website is available in German, in English, in French, in Spanish, in Japanese, in Chinese, in Korean, in Russian, in Portuguese, in Georgian, in Turkish, in Italian, in Greek, in Czech, in Hungarian, in Bulgarian and in Romanian. A wide-ranging list of links to internet resources in the area of law, constitutions, and legislation can be found here. Highly recommended.
This site includes international and comparative law guides by authors world-wide, as well as reviews of related sites.


Council of Europe Local and Regional Democracy Library, a pan-European collection of official and other information on local and regional democracy in Europe. LOREG Library contains both international legal instruments, reports and comparative studies as well as national legislation, regulations and data.


Migration Policy Group
Migration Country Reports on 18 countries and Anti-discrimination reports on 28 countries can be found here, as well as the European Migration Monitor, providing updates on political and legislative developments in the field of immigration and asylum in the European Union and European Economic Area. Highly recommended.

Peace Palace Library
The Peace Palace Library offers a useful, up-to-date integration of international legal information. Highly recommended.

SIM Documentation Site / Netherlands Institute of Human Rights, Faculty of Law
The Case Law Databases give access to CCPR, CAT, CERD, ECHR, ICTR, General Comments and UNCOM. A bibliographic database is also included. Highly recommended.

The European Human Rights System and the European Court of Human Rights
Research Guide

This is a highly useful reference guide to this subject. Recommended for further research in this field.


More country-specific sites in the field:

Administrative Center for Coordination of Assistance and Public Participation (ACCAPP)
Concept papers regarding the new Albanian constitution are included here.

Bulgarian Institute for Legal Development / University of Sofia European Studies Department
This is an excellent starting point for legal research with regards to Europe.

Instituts des Droits d l'homme des Avocats Europeens / European Bar Human
Rights Institute

This web site in English and French promotes community law and law deriving from the European Convention of Human Rights, the harmonisation of professional practice and ethics of lawyers in the member states of the European Union, and permits practioners to develop professional contacts.

Legal Research on International Law Issues / Lyonette Louis-Jacques/
University of Chicago Law School Library

This is quite an extensive list of links to sources on this topic. It includes, but is not limited to, links to government agencies, publishers, databases, library catalogues, and major electronic discussion groups.

Library of Congress - USA
This is an annotated list of servers that provide access to legal information on virtually all of the world's nations.

Max-Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law
The library OPAC (online public access catalogue)provides in-depth bibliographic information on minorities. Relevant links are also included.

University of Keele
Links to many constitutions, to collections of various UN documents and human rights conventions can be found here.



General Human Rights Sources

Amnesty International Annual Reports
These reports can be relied upon for up-to-date, reliable information on the human rights situation in many countries of the world. / The UN Human Rights Treaties
This site is devoted to the UN human rights treaty system. It is searchable by state, category, or subject matter. The Portal to UN human rights includes useful links. Highly recommended.


Balkan Human Rights Web Pages / Greek Helsinki Monitor
Documents such as press releases, articles, and reports on Albania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey and Yugoslavia issued by reliable human rights NGOs and some IGOs and governments can be found here. Detailed reports on all national, ethnolinguistic and major religious groups in Greece, as well as the Greek minorities in Albania and Turkey, and the Albanian immigrants in Greece are available here.

Concise Guide to Human Rights on the Internet / (1998) / Derechos Human Rights
This annotated guide also includes links to treaty collections and international law sites, as well as to human rights country reports.

Danish Refugee Council
This site is in Danish and in English. This organisation works to protect refugees from persecution and promote lasting solutions to refugee problems.

Forced Migration Online (FMO)
FMO is a comprehensive website that provides access to a diverse range of relevant information resources on forced migration. The full text of timely working papers are included here. Highly recommended.
Human Rights Internet
The Human Rights Internet Directory database can be found here, containing hundreds of human rights organisations. Documents on a variety of human rights issues are also provided, along with global urgent alerts. Recommended.


Human Rights Watch
This organisation is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.


Human Rights without Frontiers
This web site is available in English. The goal here is to promote democracy, the rule of law and the rights of the individual world-wide.


International Helsinki Federation
The IHF acts to protect human rights in Europe, North America, and the Central Asian republics which are successors to territories of the former Soviet Union. Here one can find statements on current issues, publication information, and contacts for the national committees.


International Network: Education for Democracy, Human Rights and Tolerance / Bertelsmann Science Foundation / Center for Applied Policy Research
A useful links list is included here. Modern societies are characterised by diversity. Thus mutual toleration is becoming a key function for the maintenance of the democratic system and the non-violent resolution of conflict. Education for democracy and tolerance is therefore among the most important challenges of the future. There is an urgent need for the exchange of expertise on fostering and educating democracy, human rights and tolerance.

The provides direct access to international norms and standards relating to specific human dimension issues (see list of topics on left-hand column) as well as to domestic legislation and other documents of relevance to these issues. These data and other information available from the site are intended for lawmakers across the OSCE region.


Norwegian Centre for Human Rights NCHR / University of Oslo
The NCHR is an independent human rights institution, a centre for national and international research on human rights. It promotes rights-based development and provides human rights education.

The Advocacy Project
The Advocacy Project lobbies for greater respect for humanitarian law and the support of civil society.

The Danish Institute for Human Rights / Det Danske Center for

Research, information, education and documentation on Danish, European, and international human rights is undertaken here.

University of Minnesota Human Rights Library
This wide-ranging database contains United Nations documents, links to U.N. websites, and links to European servers pertaining to the protection of minority rights under international law.

Abo Akademi University Institute for Human Rights
The focus is research on the international protection of human rights. Lectures, courses and seminars, and the organisation of symposia and international meetings are offered here. An extensive links collection can also be found here.

Findoc / Abo Akademi University Institute for Human Rights
Findoc is the reference database on human rights literature of this institute, providing detailed bibliographic information on ethnic minorities in Europe.


General Information on Minorities


Nemzetközi szervezetek / International organisations:


European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI)

Minority Rights Group International (MRG)
MRG works to secure the rights of ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities and indigenous peoples world-wide, and to promote cooperation and understanding between communities. Highly recommended.


Open Society Institute/Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative (LGI)
The aim here is to provide researchers, rights advocates and professionals involved in policy making and design for multiethnic communities in the region with guidance in access to information available on the Internet. Especially valuable is the list of relevant mailing lists in this field.


Federal Union of European Nationalities (FUEN)
The FUEN is an independent union of organisations of national minorities and ethnic groups in Europe. FUEN strives to preserve national characteristics, language, culture and history of national minorities and ethnic groups. FUEN is convinced that only peaceful constructive dialogue can provide the framework for political solutions leading to a harmonious relationship between majorities and minorities.


Network Promoting Linguistic Diversity (NPLD)



Universities, research centres, databases:


Centre for European Migration and Ethnic Studies (CEMES)
CEMES specialises in policy-relevant research, information and publishing on international migration, ethnic relations and related topics in Western, Central and Eastern Europe. A directory of research institutes, centres and departments in more than 30 European countries can be found here.

Center for World Indigenous Studies (CWIS)
Links to internet resources on indigenous peoples world-wide can be found here, as well as links to indigenous studies resources.

Centre for Multiethnic Research / Uppsala University
This web site is in Swedish and in English. This is a cross-disciplinary forum for the study of the cultural issues, social phenomena, and processes of change related to life's ethnic dimensions. Ethnic relationships and processes in multicultural societies, as well as the effects of international migration within cultures are also dealt with here.

Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship / University of Bristol,
Department of Sociology

The Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship has been set up in recognition of the importance of ethnicity to the study of contemporary societies and polities, and prospects for social justice and social cohesion. The full text of reports is available here.

Consortium of Minority Resources (COMIR)
This internet-based cooperative project aims to promote the free flow of dialogue in the field of ethnic relations, multicultural politics and minority rights. Highly recommended.
EURAC Research / Institute for Minority Rights
The full text of working papers can be found here, as well as the highly useful MIRIS database, which provides the full text of minority rights legislation in Europe.


Gesellschaft fuer bedrohte Voelker GfbV / Society for Threatened Peoples
This site is in German and in English. This association is committed to the support of minorities world-wide.

Institute for War and Peace Reporting
This institute provides training and a platform for independent media and other democratic voices. It focuses on the Balkans, the Caucasus and other areas in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It offers excellent coverage and analysis of the situation in Kosovo, with reports in English, Serbian, and Albanian.
Management of Social Transformations MOST/UNESCO
MOST promotes international, comparative and policy-relevant research on contemporary social transformations and issues of global importance.

Minority Electronic Resources (MINELRES)
The MINELRES site includes valuable reports and summaries on national legislation, NGO activity in the field of minority issues, and on the status of specific minorities. Highly recommended.

MINELRES / OSCE HCNM country recommendations
The OSCE attaches high importance to minority issues as problems of peace and security. This is reflected in the office of the High Commissioner on National Minorities, established in 1992. Confidentiality is normally a crucial prerequisite for the activities of the HCNM. As such, the correspondence here provides rare insights into the work of the HCNM.

Minority Rights Information System (MIRIS)
The MIRIS database includes the most important legal texts relating to minority rights by concentrating upon relevant national legislation and case-law. Highly recommended.

Minorities in Europe (Minorenza in Europa)

On the site of Regione Autonoma Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol there is a data collection of the European countries with the list of minorities, relating legal act of the country and the list of the minority organisations. The European autonomy-statutes can be found as well.


Regionalism in Europe
This website has links to many 13, as well as links to cultural regions of Europe, including Sweden. Among other useful links there is also a link here to the EU Committee of the Regions.


Research Centre on Interethnic Relations
This web site is in Romanian and in English. The focus of activities here is research on the cultural heritage of different populations and ethnic groups of Romania (especially from Transylvania), and offering scientifically founded data on controversial aspects of the history and present-day problems of different ethnic groups in the region, as well as offering assistance for NGOs striving to improve interethnic relations in Romania.

Research Resources for the Social Sciences /Craig McKie/ Department of Sociology and Anthropology/ Carleton University/ McGraw-Hill Ryerson
This is an excellent starting point for research in many fields of the social sciences.

The Scout Report / Internet Scout Project/University of Wisconsin-Madison
Each biweekly issue offers a selective collection of Internet resources chosen by librarians and content specialists in the given area of study.


World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

Countries in Europe with the list of minorities and the conditions they are living in. The list of research institute and organisations of the country can be found as well.



Related issues:

Dimostenis Yagcioglu
This is a useful introduction to the academic discussion of irredentism.

Ethnicity versus nationalism (1991) / Thomas Hylland Eriksen
This article proposes a list of necessary conditions for the peaceful coexistence of culturally diverse groups within the framework of a modern nation-state.

IMIS examines historical and contemporary demographic, geographic, socio-economic, political, legislative, psychological and educational issues of migration and integration from an interdisciplinary perspective.


International Freedom of Expression Exchange (IFEX)
This website is available in English, French, or Spanish. Up-to-date information on freedom of expression issues and abuses can be found here.


Native Web
An extensive listing of resources about indigenous peoples and nations can be found here.


Nation-States vis-a-vis Ethnocultural Minorities: Oppression and Assimilation
Versus Integration and Accomodation / D. Yagcioglu

This is a useful introduction to the academic discussion about the role of minorities with reference to nation-states.



Specific Minority Information

American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (AAAS)
This scholarly society is devoted to the advancement of knowledge about Russia, Central Eurasia and Central Europe.

Anti-Minority Incidents Continue in Vojvodina / January 2005 / Hungarian
Human Rights Foundation

Harassment and physical attacks against minorities are all too regular occurrences in the province of Vojvodina. Numbering 300,000, and comprising 14 percent of the population, ethnic Hungarians are the largest national minority in this multiethnic region. The radicalization of Serbian society, especially within Vojvodina, has intensified since the national elections of Autumn 2003.

Carpathian Connection
This genealogy and historical reference page contains background information on Carpatho-Rusyns (Ruthenians) and Slovaks.

Datenbank Osteuropa-Internetressourcen / Stadt-und Universitätsbibliothek

Links to a variety of internet resources as well as a gateway to libraries with significant East European collections can be found here.


Democratic Dialogue
Democratic Dialogue is committed to a relationship of equality and civility between all the citizens of Northern Ireland. Publications are available online. Highly recommended.


Eesti Keele Institute/Institute of the Estonian Language
This is a major attempt to draw public attention to peoples whose existence is marked by the threat of extinction. Information regarding many minority groups and their languages can be found here. Included are such groups as Chukchis, Crimean Tatars, Karaims, Lithuanian Tatars, and many more.


Le Courrier des Balkans
This website in French presents articles from independent news sources in the Balkan region, including Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Serbia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Bulgaria and Romania.


Map Collection Perry-Castenada / University of Texas
Maps of ethnic groups in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus region, the Former Soviet Union, and Moldova can be found here.

Minority Rights Abuse in Communist Poland and Inherited Issues / Alfred F.
Majewicz, Tomasz Wicherkiewicz / Acta Slavica Iaponica No.16 (1998)

Poland was a multiethnic country throughout most of its existence. In the period 1918-1939 approximately one third of its population consisted of non-Poles (mainly Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Lithuanians, Jews, Germans and Russians) who inhabited predominantly more than half of its territory. After World War II, Poland was officially proclaimed a monoethnic state, even though some twenty ethnic groups identified themselves as such and emphasized their separateness from others.

Minority Rights in the Baltics / Boris Tsilevich / Canadian Human Rights
Foundation Newsletter

The citizenship issue is the key to understanding the peculiarity of minority issues in the Baltics.

This journal reports on contemporary issues of Russia and the other countries of Eastern Europe, Central Europe, and South-eastern Europe. Useful links can also be found here.

South Tyrolean Institute of Ethnic Groups (SVI)

"Russians" in the Newly Independent States: A Bibliography of Conflicts and Preventive Diplomacy / Hanne-Margret Birckenbach and Boris Tsilevich, 1998 /Schiff-Texte Special Issue /Schleswig-Holsteinisches Institut fuer
Friedenswissenschaften SCHIFF
This is a useful starting point for research in this area.


This web site offers extensive information on Roma history, culture, organisations, as well as useful links.

REESWEB: The World Wide Web Virtual Library for Russian & East European

This site provides convenient access to websites in the Balkans, Russia, the Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic countries, Armenia and Georgia.

Roma Participation Program / Open Society Institute
Centuries of discrimination have left the Roma deprived of educational and vocational opportunities as well as socioeconomic benefits of modern society. This programme helps Roma to become active participants in the democratic process and society in which they live. It helps Roma find ways to integrate into society and the economy of the majority without loss of culture or identity. The aim is to enable Roma through democratic and grassroots means to fight for an equal role in society.


This is the homepage of the Roma National Congress and the Romnews Network. A wide-ranging collection of Roma links can be found here.

Serbja / Das Volk der Lausitzer Sorben / Sorbs of Lusatia (in Germany)
This site is in German. Information on the history, culture, and political representation of the Sorbs can be found here.

Slavic Research Center / Hokkaido University
This web site is available in Japanese and in English. The main purpose here is to engage in and promote research on Slavic countries. Comprehensive, interdisciplinary research is carried out here. Extensive links to library collections and other significant internet resources are included.


The Sami
Background information on Sami peoples, history and culture can be found here.


Virtual Finland / Frank Horn / Northern Institute of Environmental and Minority

This text provides excellent background information on minorities in Finland. Information on the Aaland Islands can also be found here.

Virtual Library on Intternational Development / Canadian International
Development Agency

This web site is in English and in French. Informative links on conflict management, specific country and regional information can be found here.

Who Has A Right To Crimea? / Volodymyr G. Butkevych / 1996
This online paper provides a useful historical background to the Crimean question.



Minority languages


Ethnologue: Languages of the world
Search this extensive database by countries of the world. Reliable information about language groups is contained here.


Eurolang is a specialist news agency covering topics related to lesser-used languages, linguistic diversity, stateless nations and national minorities within the European Union.


European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages


European Minority Languages / Sabhal Mor Ostaig
Links to information on minority languages in many countries of Europe can be found here.


Euromosaic / Institut de Sociolinguistica Catalana / Centre de Recherche sur le
plurilinguisme / Research Centre Wales

Valuable, abbreviated versions of the Euromosaic Report are presented here. The argument here is that language is a central component of diversity, and that if diversity is the cornerstone of innovative development, then attention must be given to sustaining the existing pool of diversity within the EU.
L'amenagement linguistique dans le monde / Jacques Leclerc / Universite Laval
This website in French presents background information on minority languages in more than 90 countries.

MERCATOR: linguistic rights and legislation
Legislation and further research information on minority languages can be found in a useful database here, along with a bibliographical database, full text working papers, and an annotated links list. Highly recommended as an excellent starting point for research.


Minority Daily Association (MIDAS)


Nordfriisk Instituut
This website is in German, with background information in English. The useful Emigrant Archive is in German and in English. Founded in 1965, this is the central academic institute in North Frisia. It is dedicated to the maintenance, promotion and research of the Frisian language, history and culture.

Tele-universite / DiversCite Langues / Universite du Quebec
This web site in French is an electronic magazine and interdisciplinary forum to promote discussion on the dynamics of languages. The aim is to increase interest in the interrelations between linguistic phenomena and sociocultural phenomena. Diversity, pluralism, and the complementarity of linguistic situations in the context of the globalisation of societal change are of particular interest here. Interesting links are also included.

Terrlalingua aims to support the perpetuation and continued development of the world's linguistic diversity and to explore the connections between linguistic, cultural and biological diversity. An extensive bibliography on multilingualism and linguistic human rights, compiled by Tove Skutnabb-Kangas can be found here, as well as a links list.

The Digital Region Friesland
Information on language, people and history of Westfriesland can be found here.

UNESCO Red Book on Endangered Languages: Europe / Tapani Salminen /

According to experts, languages are today being murdered at a rate faster than ever before in human history. The media and the educational systems are the most important direct agents of language murder today. Indirect culprits are the global economic and political systems.



NGO-s and other organisations

Civil Society International
An extensive list of Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia-based NGOs can be found here.

Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)
The Committee to Protect Journalists CPJ is an independent, non-profit organisation founded in 1981. The CPJ promotes press freedom world-wide by defending the right of journalists to report the news without fear of reprisal. Case histories of documented press freedom violations against journalists and media organisations world-wide as well as annual reports on the violations in specific countries and regions can be found here.


Counterpart Creative Center
A free database of many NGOs in Ukraine is offered for authorised users. Updated news on legislation with regards to civil society NGOs is also available here.

European Roma Rights Center (ERRC)
The ERRC monitors the human rights situation of Roma and provides legal defence in cases of human rights abuse.
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union


Hungarian Minorities’ Brussels Information center 


Resources for Environmental Activists
The mission of ISAR is to support practical and collaborative resolutions to the environmental threats faced by communities in the former Soviet Union by providing training ,as well as technical and informational resources to individuals and organisations working on environmental issues in the region.


International Research & Exchanges Board (IREX)
IREX is an international non-profit organisation specialising in education, independent media, Internet development and civil society programs. Through training, partnerships, education, research, and grant programs, IREX develops the capacity of individuals to contribute to their societies.


An extensive collection of annotated links about a variety of NGOs active in Central and Eastern Europe can be found here. It can be used by founders seeking grantees, and by grantees seeking founders. The site is updated frequently in order to provide practical information for the region's NGO community.

Project on Ethnic Relations (PER)
The peaceful resolution of ethnic conflicts in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Russian Federation is strived for here. Representatives of ethnic groups and government officials are given opportunities for dialogue under neutral auspices.

Research Centre on Interethnic Relations (CCRIT)

The Research Centre on Interethnic Relations (CCRIT) is a non-profit organisation, founded in 1992 by professor Ion Aluas from the Sociology Department of "Babes-Bolyai" University of Cluj. Its main activities include the collection of accurate and complete scientific data on ethnic groups and interethnic relations in Romania, the analysis and interpretation of ethnic phenomena in relation to the economical, political, social and cultural dimensions of the social field.


Stiftung Entwicklung und Frieden / Development and Peace Foundation
This is a cross-party, non-profit organisation which brings together noted individuals from politics, academia, economics, trade unions and the church who are moved by a sense of global responsibility. The foundation helps to stimulate discussion about the problems that are likely to be posed in the future by an increasingly intermeshed world society.


The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities: A Guide for
Non-Governmental Organisations

The effectiveness of the FCNM is likely to depend on whether it is taken seriously by governments and the strength of the monitoring mechanism to oversee its implementation. The active involvement of NGOs is crucial for both of these factors.